From:A short summary of Polish History- by Janina Kaczmarec Vitali  from “Basnie Polskie”


It’s necessary to mention shortly Poland history and her terrible wars to know and value the magnificent Polish people. Their generous and noble spirit had to fight in centuries against painful adversities, oppressed but not destroyed, humiliated but not subjugated.

Poland is a great and unlucky country, her history is known from the fourth century, with Piasti’s

dynasty that reigned for about five hundred years. The true dynasties were in fact two:Piasti and Jagelloni. These reigned for about two centuries and under their reign the country reached magnificence, power and culture.

In 1572 Jagelloni’s monarchy came to end and Poland became and elective monarchy. But central power was weakened, so the neighbouring countries Russia, Prussia and Austria, in three times,in spite of patriotic resistance, shared out Polish area.

Untill 1918 Poland remained subject to those three countries, except for the Napoleonic period, in spite of strong rebellions.

With the breakdown of the tszarism, Poland became an indipendent country, but in 1939 the nazi Germany attacked and Polish army was overwhelmed, while Russia invaded from east.

During the war in Poland began a resistance movement. We all know what happened in those terrible days.

Of course Polish borders often changed during history, now Poland is still returned in her old borders between Orda and Bug.-




Temperament of Sighthounds- from “Our Levriers” by Xavier Przezdziecki


-Thousand of years of companionship with the hunters of the steppes have led the Levrier to share the life of the human family and yet safeguard a fundamental independence inherited from his forebears in the wild. Somewhat paradoxically in juxtaposition to the Levrier’s need for independence, there is an equal need for affection from man whose presence the Levrier constantly seeks- as if those hunting and sporting activities so important to physical development are in need of a complementary element vouchsafed by a serene family environment.

Even living in a group, the Levrier recognizes the prerogative of a man as a master, observant, wary, keen and obedient according to circumstance, he retains a latent predatory temperament without which the Levrier would not be a Levrier. Sociability and behaviour as adults will depend on their contact with humans during the first weeks of their lives. To make the point once more: the first weeks, those earliest months, are the determining phases.-


…..sensory: the Levrier uses sight for hunting activities;

      ethological; the Levrier has a sense of individualism that rejects the discipline of the pack;

      The fact that the Levrier does not use its sense of smell for hunting doesn’t mean it has no such

       Sense. When offered a bunch of roses, some ladies sniff them, others merely look.-




Investigation of just two physiological function, respiration and blood circulation, would amply reveal the original nature of the levrier. In the “canis” family, no species has a thoracic capacity approaching that of the Levrier. Merely his silhouette will suffice as a demonstration of this obvious fact.

Furthermore, no species of the genus “canis” has a mechanism of circulation to be compared to that of the Levrier. There is an astonishing difference between the relative weight of the heart of any animal of the genus “canis” and that of a Levrier. While the heart of an Alsatian represents 1.5 % of the animal’s weight, that of a Levrier is on average more than twice that percentage. The heart of a Borzoi represents 3.17% of the animal bodyweight; that of a Greyhound, 3.25%(Seiferle;1962).

Other less peremptory peculiarity not to be neglected might also mentioned here, such as  the oestrous cycle. In the Levrier –the purest at any rate- the cycle is often annual, with a longer period of fecundity than in the canine species, which is from the 8th to the 14th day. The Levrier bitch’s period usually reaches the 18th day and can even last longer, the late covering in racing circles in order to obtain a majority of males in the litter.


From final observations:


… during this twentieth centuries, history and science have each revealed that the existence of the Levrier dates back beyond the creation of canine species- thus confirming the work of Linnč, who, even in the XVIII century, set the Levrier apart as a species. To these historical and scientific data have now been brought some addictional observation relating the nature of the Levrier, contribution to highlightling th specific pecurialities that segregate the Levriers both from the canine species and both from other species of the genus “canis”……….

Briefly,the morphological, anatomical, sensorial, physiological, mental and ethological characteristics   make for a whole that points plainly to the Levrier as being an original species.


The wary Levrier


The affection the Levrier lavishes on his human family is counter-balanced by a wary attitude_a mentality inherited from wild origins and often wrongly interpreted; it is but an element of protection inherent to fauna in general.

In the course of domestication, wariness diminishes in varyind degrees, but it is doubtless with the Levrier that it remains most persistent. The degree of wariness varies from breed to breed, also from line to line and according to living conditions. The Levrier dedicated to the Greyhound stadium, handled by anonymous teams and with a life spent only between tracks and kennel, is less wary than the Levrier setting off from the Bedouin tent to scan the countryside where the jackals prowls, spying in readiness to follow him and to contest his prey.

As for the West, a Levrier can only be awarded a pedigree once once it has been presented on exibition at show. To tell the true, the atmosphere of most shows is the exact opposite  of a natural environment: what with an audience, the incessant barking and deafening loud-speakers…These Levriers do not always travels in first class comfort and sometimes have long journeys, only to be showes on the spur of the moment into exhibition hall; they are very likely to show their distrust, not the way to set about winning the desired acclaim! Therefore, though it is suitable to grant the Levrier a maximum of liberty to enable him to develop as naturally as possible, it is also appropriate to familiarise him with the outside world and particularly with the ritual of the show-ring. Introduction to exhibitions will be all the smoother if he senses his master at his side and feel safe; that way distrust is not aroused.

As for their behaviour during sporting activities, self confidence in the action of pursuing a prey or a lure takes away any sense of distrust or wariness.-


Thank you Mr. Przezdziecki, I shall always be grateful to you for you love for Levrier, for your deep knowledge and for what I’ve learnt from you.